Epidemiology and sex‑related differences in pain

Written by Balashova T.V., Mnatsakanyan L.A., Andreeva N.A., PavlovV.A., Shoumatov V.B.

  UDK: 616‑009.7‑055‑036.2 | Pages: 16-20 | Full text PDF | Open PDF 


This paper offers a literature review on the prevalence of
pain syndrome and sex‑related differences in pain perception. The
authors present the present‑day experimental studies that confirm
the important role of sex hormones in mechanisms of pain genera‑
tion, and consider some of the issues related to sexual dimorphism
in nociceptive and anti‑nociceptive processes.

Links to authors:

T.V. Balashova, L.A. Mnatsakanyan, N.A. Andreeva, V.A. Pavlov, V.B. Shoumatov
T.V. Balashova, L.A. Mnatsakanyan, N.A. Andreeva, V.B. Shoumatov
Vladivostok State Medical University (2 Ostryakova Av. Vladivostok 690950 Russian Federation)
V.A. Pavlov
Vladivostok Clinical Hospital No. 2 (57 Russkaya St. Vladivostok 690105 Russian Federation)

  1.  1. Duizen I.V., Lamash N. E., Denezh A.A., Fadeeva A.S. The
    recearche of nitroxide modulating action of promedola under
    single application for the pre‑anesthesia in cancer patients //
    Pacific Medical Journal. 2010. No. 2. P. 43–45.
    2. Lesnoi I.I., Klimchuk L.V., Lesnaya I.N. the features of pain
    perception in women // Medical aspects of women health. 2010.
    No. 8. P. 68–71.
    3. Moseikin I.A., Rudenko I.V. New approaches in the study of pain
    // Reflexology. 2008. No. 3–4. P.16–19.
    4. Neuropathic pain: clinical observations / edds. N.N. Jahno, V.V.
    Alekseeva, E.V. Podchufarovoi, M.L. Kukushkina. M.: RAMS.
    2010. 263 p.
    5. Osipova N.A. Criteria for selection of pain pharmacotherapy //
    Anesthesiology and Intensive Care. 2003. No. 5. P. 13–17.
    6.Reshetnyak V.K. Age and sex differences of pain perception
    // URL: http://www.painstudy.ru/education/agesex.htm (date
    7.Aloisi A.M., Bonifazi M. Sex hormones, central nervous sys‑
    tem and pain // Hormones and Behavior. 2006. Vol. 50, No. 1.
    Р. 1–7.
    8.Ashcroft G.S., Mills S.J., Ashworth J.J. Ageing and wound healing
    // Biogerontology. 2002. Vol. 3, No. 6. P. 337–345.
    9.Averbuch M., Katzper M. Gender and the placebo analgesic effect
    in acute pain // Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2001.
    Vol. 70, No. 3. P. 287–291.
    10. Bar‑El Y., Gilboa B., Unger N. et al. Skeletonized versus pedicled
    internal mammary artery: impact of surgical technique on post
    CABG surgery pain. // European Journal of Cardio–Thoracic
    Surgery. 2005. Vol. 27, No. 6. Р. 1065–1069.
    11. Bereiter D.A., Cioffi J.L., and Bereiter D.F. Oestrogen receptor
    immunoreactive neurons in the trigeminal sensory system of
    male and cycling female rats // Archives of Oral Biology. 2005.
    Vol. 50. P.971–979.
    12. Bradshaw H., Miller J., Ling Q., Malsnee K. Sex differences and
    phases of the estrous cycle alter the response of spinal cord
    dynorphin neurons to peripheral inflammation and hyperalgesia
    // Pain. 2000. Vol. 85, No. 1–2. P. 93–99.
    13. Berkley K.J. Sex differences in pain // Behavioral and Brain Sci‑
    ences. 1997. Vol. 20, No. 3. P. 371–380.
    14. Breivik H., Collett В., Ventafridda V. et al. Survey of chronic
    pain in Europe: Prevalence, impact on daily life, and treatment
    // European Journal of Pain. 2006. Vol. 10. P. 287–333.
    15.Cairns B.E., Gazerani P. Sex‑related differences in pain // Matu‑
    ritas. 2009. Vol. 63, No. 3. Р. 292–296.
    16.Chaban V.V., Micevych P.E. Estrogen receptor‑mediates estradiol
    attenuation of ATP‑induced Ca2
    ‑signaling in mouse dorsal root
    ganglion neurons // Journal of Neuroscience Research. 2005.
    Vol. 81, No. 1. Р.31–37.
    17.Chakour M.C., Gibson S.J., Bradbeer M., Helme R.D. The effect
    of age on A‑delta and C‑fibre thermal pain perception // Pain.
    1996. Vol. 64. P.143–152.
    18.Clinch D., Banjeree A.K., Ostick G. Absence of abdominal pain
    in elderly patients with peptic ulcer // Age Ageing. 1984. Vol. 13.
    P. 120–123.
    19.Collins L.G., Stone L.A. Pain sensitivity, age and activity level in
    chronic schizophrenics and in normal adults // British Journal
    of Psychiatry. 1966. Vol. 112. P. 33–35.
    20.Craft R.M. Modulation of pain by estrogens // Pain. 2007. Vol.132,
    No. 1 Suppl. P. S3–S12.
    21. Ebert В., Thorkildsen C, Andersen S. et al. Opioid analgesics as
    noncompetitive N‑methyl‑D‑aspartate (NMDA) antagonists //
    Biochemical Pharmacology. 1998. Vol. 56, No. 5. P. 553–559.
    22. Eisenberg E., Pultorak Y., Pud D., Bar‑El Y. Prevalence and
    characteri sties of post coronasy artery bypass graft surgery pain
    (PCP) // Pain. 2001. Vol. 92. P. 11–17.
    23. Ellermeier W., Westphal W. Gender differences in pain ratings
    and pupil reactions to painful pressure stimuli // Pain. 1995.
    Vol. 61. P. 435–439.
    24. Fillingim R.B., King C.D., Ribeiro‑Dasilva M.C. et al. Sex, gender,
    and pain: a review of recent clinical and experimental findings //
    The Journal of Pain. 2009. Vol. 10, No. 4. Р. 447– 485.
    25. Froehlich F., Thorens J., Schwizer W. et al. Sedation and analgesia
    for colonoscopy: patient tolerance, pain, and cardiorespiratory pa‑
    rameters // Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 1997. Vol. 45, No. 1. P. 1–9.
    26. Gangula P.R., Lanlua P., Wimalawansa S. et al. Regulation of
    calcitonin gene–related peptide expression in dorsal root ganglia
    of rats by female sex steroid hormones // Biology Reproduction.
    2000. Vol. 62. P. 1033–1039.
    27. Gear R.W., Gordon N.C., Heller P.H. et al. Gender difference in
    analgesic response to the kappa–opioid pentazocine // Neurosci‑
    ence Letters. 1996. Vol. 205, No. 3. Р. 207–209.
    28. Goodman H.M., Frick G.P., Tai L.R. The significance of the short
    form of the growth hormone receptor in rat adipocytes // Proc.
    Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 1994. Vol. 206, No. 3. P. 304–308.
    29. Greiner A., Rantner В., Greiner K. et al. Neuropathic pain after
    femoropopli–teal bypass surgery // Journal of Vascular Surgery.
    2004. Vol. 39. P. 1284–1287.
    30. Guinsburg R., Clóvis de Araújo Peres, Branco de Almeida M.
    F., Rita de Cássia Xavier Balda. Differences in pain expression
    between male and female newborn infants // Pain. 2000. Vol. 85,
    No. 1–2. P. 127–133.
    31. Gupta D.S., von Gizycki, Gintzler A.R. Sex‑dependent release of
    endomorphin 2 from spinal cord // The journal of pharmacology
    and experimental therapeutic. 2007. Vol. 321. P. 635–641.
    32.Hammes S.R., Levin E.R. Extranuclear steroid receptors: nature and actions // Endocrine Reviews. 2007. Vol. 28. No. 7,
    Р. 726–741.
    33.Hans G., Masquelier E., De Cock P. The diagnosis and manage‑
    ment of neuropathic pain in daily practice in Belgium: an obser‑
    vational study // BMC Public Health. 2007. Vol. 7. P. 170–178.
    34.Harkins S.W., Chapman C.R. Detection and decision factors in
    pain perception in young and elderly men // Pain. 1976. Vol. 2.
    P. 253–264.
    35.Harkins S.W., Chapman C.R. The perception of induced dental
    pain in young and elderly women // The Journal of Gerontology.
    1977. Vol. 32. P. 428–435.
    36.Kampal M., Hatzogloul A., Notas G. et al. Opioids are non–
    competitive inhibitors of nitric oxidesynthase in T47D human
    breast cancer cells // Cell Death and Differentiation. 2001. Vol. 8.
    No. 10. P. 943–952.
    37.Krzanowska E.K., Bodnar R.J. Morphine antinociception elicited
    from the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray is sensitive to sex and
    gonadectomy differences in rats // Brain Research. 1999. Vol. 821,
    No. 1. P. 224 –230.
    38. Liuzzi F.J., Scoville S.A., Bufton S.M. Effects of short‑term estro‑
    gen replacement on trkA mRNA levels in axotomized dorsal root
    ganglion neurons // Exp. Neurology.1999. Vol. 159. P. 433–440.
    39. Liverman C.S., Brown J.W., Sandhir R. et al. Oestrogen increases
    nociception through ERK activation in the trigeminal gan– glion:
    evidence for a peripheral mechanism of allodynia // Cephalalgia.
    2009. Vol. 29. No. 5, Р. 520–531.
    40. MacDonald J.B., Ballie J., Williams B.O., Ballantyne D. Coronary
    care in the elderly // Age Ageing. 1983. Vol. 12. P. 17–20.
    41.Machelska H., Labuz D., Przewocki R., Przewocka B. Inhibition
    of nitric oxide synthase enhances antinociception medated by mu,
    delta and kappa opioid receptors in acute and prolonged pain in
    the rat spinal cord // Mol. Pharm. 1997. Vol.282, No. 2. P. 977–984.
    42. Matthew P.R., Kelly A.B., Stephen B.M. et al. 17‑beta‑estradiol
    rapidly enhances bradykinin signaling in primary sensory neu‑
    rons in vitro and in vivo // The Journal of Pharmacology and
    Experimental Therapeutic. 2010. Vol. 335, No. 1. Р. 190–196
    43. McDermott A.M., Toelle T.R., Rowbotham D.J. et al. The burden
    of neuropathic pain: results from a cross–sectional survey //
    European Journal of Pain. 2006. Vol. 10. P. 127–135.
    44. Meyhoff C.S., Thomsen C.M., Rasmussen I.S., Nieisen P.R. High
    incidence of chronic pain following surgery for pelvic fracture //
    Clinical Journal of Pain. 2006. Vol. 22, No. 2. P. 167–172.
    45. Mignat C., Wille U., Ziegler A. Affinity profiles of morphine, co‑
    deine, dihydrocodeine and their glucuronides at opioid receptor
    subtypes // Life Sciences. 1995. Vol. 56. P. 793–799.
    46. Nai‑Jiang Liu, Hans von Gizycki, Alan R. Gintzler Sexually
    dimorphic recruitment of spinal opioid anaigesic pathways by
    the spinal application of morphine // The Journal of Pharma‑
    cology and Experimental Therapeutic. 2007. Vol. 322, No. 2.
    P. 654–660.
    47. Nienhuijs S.W., van Oort I., Keemers‑Gels M.E. et al. Randomized
    trial comparing the Prolene Hernia System, mesh plug repair and
    Lichtenstein method for open inguinal hernia repair // British
    Journal of Surgery. 2005. Vol. 92, No. 1. Р. 33–38.
    48. Nikolajsen L., Brandsbcrg B., Lucht U. et al. Chronic pain fcl‑
    lowirg total hip arthroplasty: a nationwide questionnaire study //
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 2006. Vol. 50. P. 495–500.
    49.Torrance N, Smith B, Bennett M, Lee A. The Epidemiology of
    Chronic Pain of Predominantly Neuropathic Origin. Results
    From a General Population Survey // Journal of Pain. 2006. Vol.l7,
    No. 4. P. 281–289
    50. Unruh A.M. Gender variations in clinical pain experience (re‑
    view) // Pain. 1996. Vol. 65, No. 2–3. Р. 123–167.
    51. Von Korff M., Dworkin S.G., LeResche L., Krueger A. An epide‑
    miologic comparison of pain complaints // Pain. 1988. Vol. 32.
    P. 33–40.
    52.Wallace M.S., Wallace A.M., Lee J., Dobke M.K. Pain after breast
    surgery: a survey of 282 women // Pain. 1996. Vol. 66, No. 2–3.
    P. 195–205.
    53.Wiesenfeld‑Hallin Z. Sex differences in pain perception // Gender
    Medicine. 2005. Vol. 2. P. 137–145.
    54.Yang Y., Ozawa H., Lu H. et al. Immunocytochemical analysis of
    sex differences in calcitonin gene–related peptide in the rat dorsal
    root ganglion, with special reference to estrogen and its receptor
    // Brain Research. 1998. Vol. 791, No. 1–2. Р. 35– 42.


Founded in 1997  |  Editions in a year: 4, Articles in one issue: 30 |  ISSN of print version: 1609-1175  |  Ind.: 18410 (Agency "Rospechat’")  |  Edition: 1000 c.