Neurons of spinal lamella X

Written by Porseva V.V., Shilkin V.V.

  UDK: 611.822.018: 616-091.81 | Pages: 5–10 | Full text PDF | Open PDF 


The review presents extensive information about the position, form and functions of neurons of spinal lamella X in different animals that are the evidence of cells presence in autonomic nervous system (central nucleus), premotor interneurons and ectopic primary sensory neurons. With sufficient detail it is presented the results of the study of neuronal activity of acetylcholinesterase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate- diaphorase by histochemical methods, choline, gammaaminobutyric acid, and nitric oxide synthase and calbindin by immunohistochemistry, supported by illustrations of their own research. These data allow the authors to believe that around the central canal of the spinal cord is functioning complex cluster of premotor neurons providing excitatory and inhibitory effect on motor neurons, preganglionic neurons of the autonomic nervous system, simpatotsity exercising innervation of the spinal cord vessels, as well as the primary sensory neurons.

Links to authors:

V.V. Porseva, V.V. Shilkin
Yaroslavl State Medical University (5 Revolyutsionnaya St. Yaroslavl 150000 Russian Federation)

1. Matveeva N.Yu., Kalinichenko S.G., Puschin I.I., Motavkin P.A. The role of nitric oxide in apoptosis of human fetal retinal neurons // Morphology. 2006. Vol. 129, No. 1. P. 42–48.
2. Motavkin P.A., Chertok V.M. Innervation of the brain // Pacific Medical Journal. 2008. No. 3. P. 11–23.
3. Pivchenko P.G. Structure of the cineria of humans and mammals: thesis abstract, MD. Kharkov, 1993. 38 p.
4. Porseva V.V. Age-related changes of the spinal cord nuclei and ganglia in normal conditions and in chemical deafferentation: thesis abstract, PhD. Yaroslavl, 2006. 19 p.
5. Porseva V.V. Calbindin-immunoreactive interneurons of the transitional area and the ventral horn of the spinal cord in a white rat // Morphology. 2014. Vol. 146, No. 6. P. 21–26.
6. Porseva V.V., Shilkin V.V. NADPH-diaphorase-positive structures of the spinal cord and spinal nodes // Morphology, 2010. Vol. 137, No. 2. P. 13–17.
7. Porseva V.V., Shilkin V.V., Strelkov A.A. [et al.]. Subpopulations of calbindin-immunoreactive interneurons of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in mice // Cytology. 2014. Vol. 56, No. 8. P. 612–618.
8. Chertok V.M., Kotsyuba A.E. The distribution of NADPH-diaphorase and neuronal NO-synthase in the nuclei of the medulla oblongata // Morphology. 2013. Vol. 144, No. 6. P. 9–14.
9. Anelli R., Heckman C.J. The calcium binding proteins calbindin,parvalbumin, and calretinin have specific patterns of expression in the gray matter of cat spinal cord // J. Neurocytology. 2005. Vol. 34, No. 6. P. 369–385.
10. Antal M., Freund T.F., Polgár E. Calcium-binding proteins, parvalbumin- and calbindin-D28k-immunoreactive neurons in the rat spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia: a light and electron microscopic study // J. Comp. Neurol. 1990. Vol. 295, No. 3. P. 467–484.
11. Banik, N.L., Matzelle, D.C., Gantt-Wilford G. [et al.]. Increased calpain content and progressive degradation of neurofilament protein in spinal cord injury // Brain Res. 1997. Vol. 752, No. 1–2. P. 301–306.
12. Barber R. P., Phelps P. E., Houser C. R. [et al.]. The morphology and distribution of neurons containing choline acetyltransferase in the adult rat spinal cord: an immunocytochemical study // J. Comp. Neurol. 1984. Vol. 229. P. 329–346.
13. Barber R.P., Vaughn J.E., Roberts E. The cytoarchitecture of GABAergic neurons in rat spinal cord // Brain Res. 1982. Vol. 238. P. 305–328.
14. Caillard O., Moreno H., Schwaller B. [et al.]. Role of the calciumbinding protein parvalbumin in short-term synaptic plasticity // Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2000. Vol. 97, No. 24. P. 13372– 13377.
15. Calka J., Zalecki M., Wasowicz K. [et al.]. A comparison of the distribution and morphology of ChAT-, VAChT-immunoreactive and AChE-positive neurons in the thoracolumbar and sacral spinal cord of the pig // Veterinarni Medicina. 2008. Vol. 53, No. 8. P. 434–444.
16. Deuchars S. A., Milligan C. J., Stornetta R. L. [et al.]. GABAergic neurons in the central region of the spinal cord: a novel substrate for sympathetic inhibition // Neurosci. 2005. Vol. 25, No. 5. P. 1063–1070.
17. Fahandejsaadi A., Leung E., Rahaii R. [et al.]. Calbindin-D28K, parvalbumin and calretinin in primate lower motor neurons // Neuroreport. 2004. Vol. 15, No. 3. P. 443–448.
18. Freire M.A.М., Tourinho S.C., Guimarães J.S. [et al.]. Histochemical characterization, distribution and morphometric analysis of NADPH diaphorase neurons in the spinal cord of the agouti // Front. Neuroanat. 2008. Vol. 2. doi: 10.3389/ neuro.05.002.2008.
19. Gookin J.L., Rhoads J.M., Argenzio R.A. Inducible nitric oxide synthase mediates early epithelial repair of porcine ileum // Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 2002. Vol. 283, No. 1. P. 157–168.
20. Gotts J., Edwards I., Deuchars S.A., Deuchars J. Co-localisation of the enzymes synthesising GABA and acetylcholine in the mouse spinal cord // Proc. Physiol. Soc. 31. 2014. PCA047.
21. Grant G., Koerber H.R. Spinal cord cytoarchitecture // The Rat Nervous System. 2004. Vol. 3. P. 121–128.
22. Jankowska E., Bannatyne B.A., Stecina K. [et al.]. Commissural interneurons with input from group I and II muscle afferents in feline lumbar segments: neurotransmitters, projections and target cells // J. Physiol. 2009. Vol. 587, No. 2. P. 401–418.
23. Kim J.J., Chang I.Y., Chung Y.Y. [et al.]. Immunohistochemical studies on the calbindin D-28K and parvalbumin positive neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord after transection of spinal cord of rats // Korean J. Phys. Anthropol. 2002. Vol. 15, No. 4. P. 305–329.
24. Lee J.C., Hwang I.K., Cho J.H. [et al.]. Expression and changes of calbindin D-28k immunoreactivity in the ventral horn after transient spinal cord ischemia in rabbits // Neurosci Lett. 2004. Vol. 369, No. 2. P. 145–149.
25. Marsala J., Vanický I., Marsala M. [et al.]. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase in the spinal cord of dogs // Neurosci. 1998. Vol. 85, No. 3. P. 847–862.
26. Megias M., Alvarez-Otero R., Pombal M.A. Calbindin and calretinin immunoreactivities identify different types of neurons in the adult lamprey spinal cord // J. Comp. Neurol. 2003. Vol. 455, No. 1. P. 72–85.
27. Morona R., Lopez J.M., Gonzalez A. Calbindin-D28k and calretinin immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of the lizard Gekko gecko: Colocalization with choline acetyltransferase and nitric oxide synthase // Brain Res. Bull. 2006. Vol. 69, No. 5. P. 519–534.
28. Motavkin P.A., Bakhtinov A.P. Postnatal development of human spinal cord ependymal innervation // Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology. 1973. Vol. 6, No. 3. Р. 253–259.
29. Motavkin P.A., Dovbysh T.V. Cholinergic nervous apparatus of pia mater and brain blood vessels // Bull. Exp. Biol, Med. 1970. Vol. 70, No. 7. Р. 113–116.
30. Nagy J.I., Yamamoto T., Jordan L.M. Evidence for the cholinergic nature of C-terminals associated with subsurface cisterns in α-motoneurons of rat // Synapse. 1993. Vol. 15, No. 1. Р. 17–32.
31. Nahin R.L., Madsen A.M., Giesler G J. Anatomical and physiological studies of the gray matter surrounding the spinal cord central canal // Journal Comp. Neurol. 1983. Vol. 220. P. 321–335.
32. Polgar E., Sardella T.C., Tiong S.Y. [et al.]. Functional differences between neurochemically defined populations of inhibitory interneurons in the rat spinal dorsal horn // Pain. 2013. Vol. 154, No. 12. P. 2606–2615.
33. Porseva V.V. Topography and morphometric characteristics of NF200+ neurons in the gray matter of the spinal cord after capsaicin deafferentation // Neurosci. and Behav. Physiol. 2014. Vol. 44, No. 8. P. 919–923.
34. Schoenen J., Faull R.L.M. Spinal cord: cyto- and chemoarchitecture // The Human Nervous System. 2004. Vol. 2. P. 190–232.
35. Stepien A.E., Tripodi M., Arber S. Monosynaptic rabies virus reveals premotor network organization and synaptic specificity of cholinergic partition cells // Neuron. 2010. Vol. 68. P. 456–472.
36. Todd A.J. Neuronal circuitry for pain processing in the dorsal horn // Nature Reviews. 2010. Vol. 11. P. 823–836.
37. van Dijken H., Dijk J., Voorn P., Holstege J.C. Localization of dopamine D2 receptor in rat spinal cord identified with immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization // Eur. J. of Neurosci. 1996. Vol. 8. P. 621–628.
38. Zagoraiou L., Akay T., Martin J.F. [et al.]. A cluster of cholinergic premotor interneurons modulates mouse locomotor activity // Neuron. 2009. Vol. 64. P. 645–662.


Founded in 1997  |  Editions in a year: 4, Articles in one issue: 30 |  ISSN of print version: 1609-1175  |  Ind.: 18410 (Agency "Rospechat’")  |  Edition: 1000 c.